Gastrulation of a yolky Xenopus laevis blastula as viewed obliquely from below. At the start of gastrulation, smaller pigmented cells from the upper surface spread by epiboly, converging on a predetermined region of the embryo and entering its interior by involution. The point of entry is evident as a pigmented rim, which gradually enlarges laterally as spreading surface cells traveling a longer distance reach the region of involution. Gastrulation is essentially complete when a small plug of large yolky cells is surrounded by a complete rim of much smaller, involuting pigmented cells. Gastrulation takes about 7 hours. The time-lapse sequence lasts about 19 seconds and records events lasting about 15 hours; the video is thus presented at about 47 times real time.
Following Gastrulation we can see the start of neuralation with the embryo elongating and ‘folding’ in on itself from the sides.
Taken from Keller and Shook ‘Gastrulation in Amphibians’ (2004)
I love Xenopus!!!! The TGF-B/nodal/Nieuwkoop center business is one craAaAazy pathway, but still so fascinating at the same time.
Take your left hand. Put your left thumb in the palm of your left hand. Squeeze your hand as hard as you can. At the same time, take your right index finger, and shove it down your throat. Ladies, you just temporarily made your gag reflexes disappear.
Haha dentists tell their more sensitive patients this all the time!
What you’re doing is essentially dissipating the gag stimuli via differential stimulation of other nerves—the nerves in your palm, overriding the gag reflex. While very sophisticated wiring indeed, our nervous systems can and will get confused once in a while; it just needs to be “hit” at the right areas. Another trick: if you need to sneeze and want to suppress it, just press down on your philtrum (that little groove above your upper lip) has hard as you can. Or you can also look up. That’s another example of dissolving an autonomic action via dissipation of stimuli across a broader neuronal network.
I think it’s a testament of my nerdiness when I say how genuinely upset I am over this. I see stores on this list near me that shouldn’t close at all (like, some of the BIGGEST, most profitable [prolly] stores)…and tbh I’m not sure what I’ll do if/when they do. Like, I see the location where I’d sit for 10 hours, studying for that A in Biochem. I see the place at home where I used to chill as a pre-teen and read half a manga series, un-bothered. Where I always picked up what I was gonna read next, etc.
Maybe it’s regrettable that I seemingly attach so much sentiment to a franchise but it’s even more regrettable to see places where actual memories were made close. And it’s not like it’s a freakin Chuck E Cheese. It’s a book store that promotes reading and studying as being something enjoyable while at the same time cultivating a relaxed, welcoming atmosphere. Yeah ok I can still go to the like 2 other Borders in my area, but they’re not the ones I ~grew up~ with. Ugh afjfakd;eka;lre wae, economy?
Truly, no other girl group exudes humility, grace, timeless elegance and cross-genre, age and overall demographic reach like these ladies. The only girls to stand strong and dominate during the boyband conquer of 2008, and the most successful Korean artists to break into the US music scene to date.
The best part: still so much to come from a group already overflowing with so much merit. Here’s to the next four (and beyond), WG!